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Category Archives: Eropa

10 langit-langit gedung terindah

Karya-karya megah nan indah ini hanya dapat Anda nikmati bila Anda menengadahkan kepala di bawahnya. Jonathan Glancey memaparkan untuk Anda.

ari bbc.co.uk

Corak Inggris pada gedung dan interior

Langgam corak Inggris

Gaya Carolean Abad 17Menjelang abad 17 di Inggris, industri pembuatan furnitur berkembang pesat, mengalahkan era sebelumnya. Pada era dinasti Tudor, furniture hanya dimiliki para bangsawan, aristokrat dan para jutawan. Pada pertengahan abad 18, furnitur sudah menjadi unsur dominan yang penting pada rumah-rumah pendiuduk biasa. Hal ini terus berkelanjutan sampai pada era Victoria dan moder.Gaya furnitur di Inggris dimulai pada abad 17 yang lebih dikenal sebagai gaya Carolean. Bentuknya yang sangat antik mirip mebel yang digunakan kolonialis Portugis di Hindia Barat.Nama Carolean lebih diidentikkkan dengan Raja Charles I dan Raja Charles II ( 1660-1685) .Aliran Restorasi, juga dikenal sebagai Carolean style (from the Latin Carolus (Charles), mengacu pada decorative arts popular in England from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 to the late 1680s after Charles II (reigned 1660 – 1685). Kembalinya sang Raja dan sidangnya dari pembuangan on the Continent led to the replacement of the Puritan severity of the Cromwellian style with a taste for kemegahan dan kemewahan dengan sedikit pengaruh cita rasa Belanda dan Perancis. These are evident in furniture in the use of floral marquetry, walnut instead of oak, twisted turned supports and legs, exotic veneers, cane seats and backs on chairs, sumptuous tapestry and velvet upholstery and ornate carved and gilded scrolling bases for cabinets. Restoration silver is characterized by embossed motifs for tulips and naturalistic fruit and leaves.

Tipe furnitur yang baru diperkenalkan dalam periode ini include cabinets on stands, chests of drawers, armchairs and wing chairs and day beds. The growing power of British East India Company resulted in increased imports of exotic commodities from China and Japan, including tea, porcelain and lacquer, and chintzes from India. This led to a craze for chinoiserie, reflected on the development of imitation lacquer (Japanning), blue and white decoration on ceramics, flat-chased scenes of Chinese-style figures and landscapes on silver and new forms of silver as teapots, as well as colourful Indian-style crewelwork bed-hangings and curtains. Other developments in the Restoration period were the emergence of the industri kaca Inggris, following the invention of lead glass by George Ravenscroft around 1676, and the manufacture of slipware by Thomas Toft. After the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689, Restoration style was superseded by William and Mary style. See also * English Restoration * Restoration comedy

 

 
Belton House, Salah satu bangunan bercorak Carolean

 

 

Fakta tentang Hagia Sophia, eks Katedral kuno

Hagia Sophia: Fakta, Sejarah dan Arsitektur

Hagia Sophia
 Hagia Sophia adalah monumen berkubah as a cathedral and is now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Credit: Tatiana Popova | Shutterstock

The Hagia Sophia, yang berarti “kebijakan kudus,” is a domed monument originally built as a cathedral in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in the sixth century A.D.

It contains two floors centered on a giant nave that has a great dome ceiling, along with smaller domes, towering above.

“Hagia Sophia’s dimensions are formidable for any structure not built of steel,” writes Helen Gardner and Fred Kleiner in their book “Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History.” “In plan it is about 270 feet [82 meters] long and 240 feet [73 meters] wide. Kubahnya 108 feet [33 meters] in diameter and its crown rises some 180 feet [55 meters] above the pavement.”

In its 1,400 year life-span it has served as a cathedral, mosque and now a museum. When it was first constructed, Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. This state, officially Christian, originally formed the eastern half of the Roman Empire and carried on after the fall of Rome.

Terlahir dari kerusuhan

Kisah pembangunan Hagia Sophia dimulai A.D. 532 tatkala peristiwa Nika, revolusi besar, melanda Constantinople. Waktu itu kaisar Justinian I menguasai kerajaan selama lima tahun and had become unpopular. It started in the hippodrome among two chariot racing factions called the blue and green with the riot spreading throughout the city the rioters chanting “Nika,” which means “victory,” and attempting to throw out Justinian by besieging him in his palace.

“People were resentful of the high taxes that Justinian had imposed and they wanted him out of office,” said University of London historian Caroline Goodson in a National Geographic documentary. After moving loyal troops into the city Justinian managed to put down the rebellion with brute force.

In the wake of the uprising, and on the site of a torched church that had been called the Hagia Sophia, a new Hagia Sophia would be built. To the ancient writer Paul the Silentiary, who lived when the cathedral was completed, the building represented a triumph for both Justinian and Christianity.

“I say, renowned Roman Capitol, give way! My Emperor has so far overtopped that wonder as great God is superior to an idol!” (Translation by Peter Bell, from the book “Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian,” Liverpool University Press, 2009)

Hagia Sophia interior
Interior of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. The crown of the dome rises 180 feet (55 meters) above the floor.
Credit: Artur Bogacki | Shutterstock

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Building the Hagia Sophia

To build his cathedral, Justinian menunjuk dua orang bernama Anthemius dan Isidore sang Penatua.

“Contemporary writers do not refer to Anthemius and Isidore as architects, though the term was common in the sixth century, but asmechanikoi or mechanopoioi,” writes Indiana University professor W. Eugene Kleinbauer in a section of the book “Hagia Sophia” (Scala Publishers, 2004). “These terms denote a very small number of practitioners of the arts of design, whether of buildings or of machines or other works …”

They built the Hagia Sophia in great haste, finishing it in less than six years. To put this in comparison it took nearly a century for medieval builders to construct the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris.

This short construction period appears to have led to problems. Ancient sources, such as the writer Procopios, write that the builders had problems with the dome roof, the structure almost collapsing during construction. The dome used a system of piers to channel its weight.

“The piers on top of which the structure was being built, unable to bear the mass that was pressing down on them, somehow or other suddenly started to break away and seemed to be on the point of collapsing…” writes Procopios (translation republished on Columbia University’s website).

Eventually Anthemius and Isidore did get the domed roof to stand and it was a magnificent sight indeed. “It seems not to be founded on solid masonry, but to be suspended from heaven by that golden chain and so cover the space,” wrote Procopios.

Unfortunately this roof did not stand. It collapsed about two decades later and it fell to a man named Isidore the Younger to build a new domed roof. It has lasted, with some repairs, nearly 1,400 years, down to the present day.

“The dome rests not on a drum but on pendentives, spherical triangles that arise from four huge piers that carry the weight of the cupola. The pendentives made it possible to place the dome over a square compartment,” writes researcher Victoria Hammond, who describes the structure of the surviving Hagia Sophia dome, in a chapter of the book “Visions of Heaven: The Dome in European Architecture” (Springer, 2005).

Hagia Sophia
Sunlight coming in through the windows of the Hagia Sophia “seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery,” wrote one author.
Credit: Yulia Gursoy |Shutterstock

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Beneath the dome are 40 windows with sunlight coming through. “The sunlight emanating from the windows surrounding its lofty cupola, suffusing the interior and irradiating its gold mosaics, seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery,” she writes. “On the completion of Hagia Sophia, Justinian is said to have remarked, ‘Solomon, I have outdone thee’.”

Imperial seating

Modern-day visitors will note that the Hagia Sophia has two levels, the ground floor and a gallery above. The presence of the two levels may mean that people were organized according to gender and class when services were held at the cathedral.

In Byzantine churches “galleries seem to have been used as a means of segregation of genders and of social classes,” writes Vasileios Marinis in a chapter of the book “The Byzantine World” (Routledge, 2010). “In Hagia Sophia a part of the gallery was used as an imperial lodge, from which the empress and occasionally the emperor attended the services.”

This lodge wasn’t the only benefit the emperor got. Antony White writes in another chapter of the 2004 “Hagia Sophia” book that to enter the cathedral’s nave from the narthex there are nine doorways. “The central or Imperial Door was reserved for the use of the emperor and his attendants, and provides the most perfect approach to the interior of the church.”

Decorations and iconoclasm

The decorations within the Hagia Sophia at the time of construction were probably very simple, images of crosses for instances. Over time this changed to include a variety of ornate mosaics.

“There are a number of mosaics that have been added over the centuries, imperial portraits, images of the imperial family, images of Christ and different emperors, those have been added since Justinian’s day,” said Goodson in the documentary.

During the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., there was a period of iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire that resulted in some of the mosaics being destroyed.

“The controversy spanned roughly a century, during the years 726–87 and 815–43. In these decades, imperial legislation barred the production and use of figural images; simultaneously, the cross was promoted as the most acceptable decorative form for Byzantine churches,” writes Sarah Brooks, of James Madison University, in a Metropolitan Museum of Art article.

Hagia Sophia mosaic
The Apse Mosaic in the Hagia Sophia memperlihatkan perawan Maria menimang bayi Yesus. Tingginya 13 feet .
Credit: Artur Bogacki |Shutterstock

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“Fear that the viewer misdirected his/her veneration toward the image rather than to the holy person represented in the image lay at the heart of this controversy.”

At the end of this period decoration of the interior of Hagia Sophia resumed, each emperor adding their own images. One of the most well-known mosaics is located on the apse of the church showing a 13-foot-tall (4 meters) Virgin Mary with Jesus as a child. Dedicated on March 29, 867, it is located 30 meters (almost 100 feet) above the church floor, notes University of Sussex professor Liz James in a 2004 article published in the journal Art History.

Conversion to mosque

Another chapter in the Hagia Sophia’s life began in 1453. In that year the Byzantine Empire ended, with Constantinople falling to the armies of Mehmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

The Byzantine Empire had been in decline for centuries and by 1453 the Hagia Sophia had fallen into disrepair, notes researcher Elisabeth Piltz in a 2005 British Archaeological Reports series book. Nevertheless, the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers and they decided to convert it into a mosque.

“What a dome, that vies in rank with the nine spheres of heaven! In this work a perfect master has displayed the whole of the architectural science,” wrote Ottoman historian Tursun Beg during the 15th century (translation from Piltz’s book).

Outside the church, four minarets would eventually be added, Kleiner writes (in a 2010 edition of his book) that these “four slender pencil-shaped minarets” are more than 200 feet (60 meters) tall and are “among the tallest ever constructed.”

Changes occurred on the inside as well. Piltz writes that “after the Ottoman conquest the mosaics were hidden under yellow paint with the exception of the Theotokos [Virgin Mary with child] in the apse.” In addition “Monograms of the four caliphs were put on the pillars flanking the apse and the entrance of the nave.”

The style of the Hagia Sophia, in particular its dome, would go on to influence Ottoman architecture, most notably in the development of the Blue Mosque, built in Istanbul during the 17th century. [Related Video: Enormous Roman Mosaic Unearthed in Turkey]

Present-day museum

In 1934, the government of Turkey secularized the Hagia Sophia and turned it into a museum. The Turkish Council of Ministers stated that due “to its historical significance, the conversion of the (Hagia Sophia) mosque, a unique architectural monument of art located in Istanbul, into a museum will please the entire Eastern world and its conversion to a museum will cause humanity to gain a new institution of knowledge.” [From Robert Nelson, “Hagia Sophia: 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument,” University of Chicago Press, 2004)

Research, repair and restoration work continues to this day and the Hagia Sophia is now an important site for tourism in Istanbul. It is a place that has been part of the cultural fabric of the city in both ancient and modern times.

— Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor

Related:

Arsitek kenamaan Inggris, Zaha Hadid, meninggal dunia

Arsitek kenamaan Inggris, Zaha Hadid, meninggal dunia

  • 31 Maret 2016
Zaha HadidImage copyrightRIBA l PA
Image captionZaha Hadid adalah perempuan pertama yang menerima medali emas dari kerajaan Inggris.

Arsitek Inggris kenamaan, Zaha Hadid, meninggal dunia pada hari Kamis (31/04), dalam usia 65 tahun.

Hadid yang lahir di Irak ini terkena bronchitis pekan ini dan mengalami serangan jantung ketika menjalani perawatan di Miami, Amerika Serikat.

Hadid memiliki kantor di London dan menangani proyek-proyek besar, di antaranya Gedung Opera Guangzhou di Cina dan arena renang di kompleks Stadion Olimpiade London.

Selain itu ia juga menggarap sejumlah gedung di Hong Kong, Azerbaijan, dan Jerman.

Wartawan seni BBC mengatakan karya-karya Hadid dikenal dengan lekukan dan sentuhan geometrik yang modern.

Zaha HadidImage copyright
Image captionCiri khas karya Zaha Hadid, ‘lekukan sensual’ dengan sentuhan modern.

Karya-karya Hadid mengantarkannya menjadi wanita pertama yang menerima medali emas dari asosiasi arsitek Inggris.

Hadid lahir di ibu kota Irak, Baghdad, dan berkuliah di Beirut, Lebanon, untuk belajar matematika, sebelum menekuni bidang arsitektur di London.

Pada 1979 ia mendirikan perusahaan Zaha Hadid Architects.

Proyek besar pertamanya adalah menggarap kantor pemadam kebakaran Vitra di Weil am Rhein, Jerman.

Capstone Shift Irlandia, peninggalan Paskah

Capstones Shift: Architectural Legacies of the Easter Rising

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Untuk menandai abad pada tahun 1916, the Irish Architectural Archive, the RIAI dan Jurnal Arsitektur Irlandia telah mengembangkan program kerjasama lectures and articles entitled ‘Capstones Shift: Architectural Legacies of the Easter Rising’ yang dimulai tahun 2016.

Kuliah disertai dengan serangkaian artikel dalam Arsitektur Irlandia dan fokus pada pilihan bangunan Dublin yang hancur atau sama sekali diubah oleh peristiwa Paskah 1916 dan sesudahnya. Bangunan-bangunan ini sangat sentral pola sosial, komersial, politik dan agama segudang kehidupan. ketidakhadiran mereka, atau penghapusan dari penggunaan, akan memiliki efek langsung dan membingungkan pada rutinitas sehari-hari dan interaksi dari ribuan warga Dublin biasa karena mereka tinggal, pindah, bekerja, berdoa dan menghibur diri di kota paska kebangkitan, gangguan yg terjadi setiap hari membuat tidak dapat dihindari dan unignorable yang mendalam politik fase-shift yang telah terjadi.
Dalam kuliah kedua dalam seri, Colm O’Riordan membahas The Rising dan Ikon dari O’Connell Street (The Royal Hibernian Academy; The Dublin Bread Company; The Imperial Hotel di IAA pada 5 April, 18:00.

Medali Emas Kerajaan Inggris untuk Zaha Hadid

Medali Emas Kerajaan Inggris untuk Zaha Hadid

  • 5 Februari 2016
zaha hadidImage copyrightRIBA l PA
Image captionZaha Hadid adalah perempuan pertama yang mendapatkan hadiah itu sendirian.

Arsitek Zaha Hadid memperoleh Medali Emas Kerajaan Inggris, Royal Gold Medal dari Royal Institute of British Architects bagi karya-karyanya di dunia arsitektur.

Perempuan kelahiran Irak itu mengatakan, “sangat bangga… menjadi perempuan pertama yang dianugerahi penghargaan ini untuk karya-karyanya sendiri.”

Sebelumnya sudah ada dua pemenang perempuan – Ray Kaiser Eames dan Patricia “Patty” Hopkins – mendapat medali emas itu dalam tandem bersama suami-suami mereka: Charles Eames dan Sir Michael Hopkins.

Rancangan arsitektur Zaha Hadid antara lain Heydar Aliyev Centre in Baku, Aquatics Centre Lodon yang dibangun untuk Olympiade 2012, dan Maxxi Museum di Roma.

Ia dianugerahi gelar ningrat Dame oleh ratu Inggris pada tahun 2012.

Sri Ratu Elizabeth II secara pribadi turut memilih Hadid sebagai pemenang Medali emas ini.

Zaha HadidImage copyrightGetty
Image captionZaha Hadid di depan Riverside Museum

“Sekarang sudah lebih banyak perempuan arsitek mapan,” kata Dame Zaha saat menerima penghargaa itu. “Tak berati semuanya mudah (untuk perempuan).”

“Terkadang tantangannya sangat besar. (Namun) terjadi perubahan besar dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, dan kita akan melanjutkan kemajuan itu.”

Zaha Hadid meninggalkan Irak di usia 17 untuk studi di Inggris, dan membangun kantornya sendiri tahun 1979 di London.

Karya-karya Zaha lainnya termasuk Serpentine Sackler Gallery di London, Riverside Museum diMuseum Transportasi Glasgow, dan Guangzhou Opera House in China.

Namun tahun lalu, pemerintah Jepang membatalkan rencana untuk membangunstadion futuristik rancangan Zaha Hadid untuk Olympiade 2020 Tokyo, dan memutuskan untuk membangun stadion yang lebih kecil dan lebih murah.

Dame Zaha sebelumnya sudah dua kali memenangankan Riba Stirling Prize, anugerah asitektur Inggris paling bergengsi. Anugerah itu ia peroleh tahun 2010 untuk Museum Maxxi di Roma, dan tahun 2011 untuk Evelyn Grace Academy di Brixton.

Image copyrightGetty
Image captionArsitek kelahiran Irak ini memperoleh gelar ningrat Inggris, Dame, tahun 2012

Tahun 2004, ia menjadi perempuan pertama yang memenangkan Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Tahun lalu, Heydar Aliyev Centre di Baku, Azerbaijan yang dirancangnya, memenangkan Design Museum Design of the Year Award -juga merupakan perempuan pertama yang memenangkan hadiah itu.

Capstones Shift : Peninggalan arsitektur dari kebangkitan Easter

Capstones Shift: Architectural Legacies of the Easter Rising

0006

Untuk menandai Centenary of 1916, Arsip Arsitektur Irlandia, yakni RIAI dan jurnal Arsitektur Irlandia telah mengembangkan program bersama dari kuliah dan artikel berjudul ‘Capstones Shift: Warisan Arsitektur dari Rising Paskah’ yang aktif mulai 2016.
Kuliah disertai dengan serangkaian artikel dalam Arsitektur Irlandia dan fokus pada pilihan bangunan Dublin yang hancur atau sama sekali dirubah oleh peristiwa Paskah 1916 dan sesudahnya. Bangunan-bangunan ini sangat sentral pola sosial, komersial, politik dan agama segudang kehidupan. ketidakhadiran mereka, atau penghapusan dari penggunaan, akan memiliki efek langsung dan membingungkan pada rutinitas sehari-hari dan interaksi dari ribuan Dubliners biasa karena mereka tinggal, pindah, bekerja, berdoa dan menghibur diri di kota pasca-Rising, gangguan yg terjadi setiap hari membuat tidak dapat dihindari dan unignorable yang mendalam politik fase-shift yang telah terjadi.
Dalam kuliah kedua dalam seri, Colum O’Riordan membahas The Rising dan Ikon dari O’Connell Street (The Royal Hibernian Academy; The Dublin Bread Company; The Imperial Hotel di IAA pada 5 April, 06:00.
Semua kuliah akan dipublikasikan dalam esai-bentuk dalam Arsitektur Irlandia pada tahun 2016.

Dikutip dari Archiseek.com

Disain Perkantoran, kota Quay, Dublin

2006 – Design for Offices, City Quay, Dublin

Architect: Ian Ritchie Architects

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Proyek ini berlokasi di sebelah selatan south bank of the Liffey Quays in Dublin’s Docklands. Bounded by City Quay, Princes Street South and Gloucester Street South, the northern quayside portion of the site falls within an archaeological zone. To the west is a group of protected structures: City Quay Church, Presbytery including associated gates, piers and railings.

Menurut para arsitek: “Lokasi berada dalam kawasan yang mengijinkan berdirinya gedung tinggi, the design of which would be developed as part of a framework plan for the area. The brief is to provide approximately 20,000sq m gross of high quality offices with car parking and associated facilities. Pedestrian access is via a ground floor entry lobby which may also contain exhibition space, meeting rooms and café facilities.”

Cat air yang memperingatkan

Francis Towne membuat sketsa tentang kota Roma, menarik dan sangat tajam –  ditulis oleh Amanda Ruggeri.

 

Pada tahun 1780, seniman Inggris Francis Towne meninggalkan tanah Inggris untuk melakukan perjalanan seumur hidup: perjalanan besar menembus benua Eropa. Sendirian, melintasi jaman Romantis, perjalanan ini sangat beken dalam budaya Inggris maupun Eropa Utara lainnya that it was seen as the pinnacle of a proper education – one that shaped Keats, Shelley, Byron and many others.

JMW Turner’s The Forum Romanum was one result of the painter’s Grand Tour

JMW Turner’s The Forum Romanum was one result of the painter’s Grand Tour in Italy from 1819-20 (Credit: Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Alamy)

These travellers, mostly men of means, wanted to go to Italy to learn: to hone their knowledge of history and their skills in sketching, painting or poetry before the great monuments of the Roman Empire. But many also took another lesson from their journeys – how the British Empire could avoid the decline of the Roman one.

Towne’s watercolours were no different. They weren’t meant to merely be pretty Romantic pictures. They were also meant as warnings to the British back home that if they allowed domestic trends to continue, London – like Rome – would fall.

Francis Towne’s 1780 watercolour of a ruined tomb (Credit: Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Francis Towne’s 1780 watercolour of a ruined tomb on the road from Rome signified the transience of human achievement (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

“The idea that Rome offered a warning to the contemporary world was not a new one, but it had particular power at this moment,” says Richard Stephens, curator of the British Museum’s Light, Time, Legacy: Francis Towne’s Watercolours of Rome, which marks the first time that all 54 of Towne’s views of Rome have been exhibited together.

Decline and fall?

It might be hard to take such a warning very seriously today. But in certain circles, the idea that ancient Rome had collapsed because it had spiralled into moral decay – and that London might be on the same path – was a popular one.

The idea that ancient Rome had collapsed because it had spiralled into moral decay – and that London might be on the same path – was a popular one

The English historian Edward Gibbon published his first volume of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in 1776. His thesis was that the barbarians ultimately overran the Roman Empire largely because Roman citizens themselves had lost their civic virtues. In particular, they had lost sight of the discipline, industry and toughness that once made them great.

1734 engraving from William Hogarth’s A Rake’s Progress

This 1734 engraving from William Hogarth’s A Rake’s Progress caricatured the scene at a real brothel-tavern in Covent Garden (Credit: Timewatch Images/Alamy)

This argument had special resonance in Towne’s time. After a relatively prosperous first half of the century, the 1760s had brought economic crisis and civil unrest. Social divides were intensifying. Some felt that the new king, George III, who ruled from 1760 until 1801, was riding roughshod over the civil liberties that had been re-established by William III in 1688.

For critics, the nexus of all of this was London: home of the monarchy and Parliament, aristocratic excess and commercial greed. And with overcrowding issues – the city’s population nearly doubled throughout the 1700s – those who wanted to would, indeed, have seen plenty of signs of social and civil breakdown.

Crime was so rampant that one gang even tried to rob the Prince of Wales in St James Palace itself. Travellers to London remarked that there were more prostitutes than in any other European city. Sewage ran in the Thames.

Frustrations sometimes spilled over into violence: in the infamous Gordon Riots of 1780, rioters attacked members of the House of Lords, sacked their homes, freed prisoners and set buildings on fire – an event that destroyed 10 times more property than was lost in Paris during the entire French Revolution.

Crumbling Colosseum

Some left. The city of Exeter, in particular, became home to a vibrant political and artistic circle whose members believed they carried the torch of traditional English values, including personal liberty, frugality and hard work.

Towne’s 1780 watercolour Inside the Colosseum (Credit: Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Towne’s 1780 watercolour Inside the Colosseum is a study of the Roman Empire’s decay (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Towne was one of those artists: by the mid-1760s, he had left London for the western city. Despite routine attempts to be accepted by the London-based art establishment, bidding for election to the Royal Academy no fewer than 11 times, he was consistently rejected. The disappointment likely made him begrudge the capital all the more.

English artists… didn’t care about Catholicism and the gaudiness of the modern city. They only wanted the archaeology – Richard Stephens

So, like many of his peers, Towne went to Italy not only to educate himself on art, architecture and history. He went to see for himself the place that had fallen into such decline – and to paint images that those back home would understand as moral lessons.

Towne included eight different views of the Colosseum

Given the Colosseum’s poignancy as a symbol, it is no surprise that Towne included eight different views of it in his Rome series (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

“You can look at what did he paint and what didn’t he paint. He doesn’t go to Rome and paint all the great Baroque palaces and piazzas and churches, nothing at all of that,” says Stephens. “And that’s typical of the English artists of that period: they didn’t care about Catholicism and the gaudiness of the modern city. They only wanted the archaeology.”

Towne’s 1781 watercolour of Tivoli’s Villa of Maecenas

Towne’s 1781 watercolour of Tivoli’s Villa of Maecenas is dominated by a wild, natural landscape (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

In one painting, a gallery within the Colosseum crumbles, its floor strewn with mud, weeds poking through the masonry; in another, wild foliage climbs up the cliffs and dominates the view of the once-great Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli.

Towne’s 1781 sketch of Rome’s Temple of Vesta

Towne’s 1781 sketch of Rome’s Temple of Vesta shows the piazza looking desolate, practically abandoned (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Artists from other countries, like the Italians themselves, would paint Rome’s more recent triumphs: its Baroque fountains and opulent palaces, gold-soaked churches and sweeping piazzas.

In his paintings, Giovanni Paolo Panini focused on the city’s newer structures

In his paintings like this one of the Trevi Fountain, Giovanni Paolo Panini focused on the city’s newer structures and modern life (Credit: Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy)

Not only did Towne tend to ignore the more modern (and Catholic) monuments of Rome, but his paintings often excluded the people who populated the city. In one watercolour of the Roman Forum, he included cattle and herders. But he left the figures filled in with only a grey wash, insignificant shadows compared to the crumbling grandeur of the imperial palaces beyond.

(Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

(Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

To make the moral message even clearer, Towne also wrote on the back of his paintings. On his view from the Colosseum to the Arch of Constantine, he transcribed the arch’s wording: “through a Divine impulse with a greatness of mind, and by force of arms he delivered the Commonwealth at once from the Tyrant & all his Faction.”

“His friends at Exeter would have understood the parallel of Constantine and 1688, when William III came,” Stephens says. “It shows how he used these drawings for political purposes.”

Towne wrote the inscription from the Arch of Constantine onto the back of this painting (Credit: Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Towne wrote the inscription from the Arch of Constantine onto the back of this painting (Credit: The Trustees of the British Museum)

Although none of Towne’s own writing about his work has survived, a letter to him from one of his friends underscores how he liked to present it.

“I must again express to you the Pleasure I rec’d from yr Views of Rome,” the Exeter writer and army officer Edward Drewe wrote to Towne. “If I declined entering into that historical Investigation you might have expected, it arose from my Perfect Knowledge of that History on which I founded my Military Principles and from my Delight in finding myself in Old Rome by the text & comment of yr Pencil.” Or in other words: ‘I know you were trying to tell me about what your images said about how the mighty empire fell, but spare me – I already know it all’.

As well as carrying a portfolio of his pictures to share with friends and acquaintances, Towne sold dozens of his watercolours to clients. Today, we can imagine them on the walls of Exeter homes, little reminders – and possible conversation starters – of what Britain could become.

But by bequeathing them to the British Museum 200 years ago, Towne ensured that even now – long after those conversations have fallen silent – his views would endure.

This story is a part of BBC Britain – a series focused on exploring this extraordinary island, one story at a time. Readers outside of the UK can see every BBC Britain story by heading to the Britain homepage; you also can see our latest stories by following us on Facebook and Twitter.

Waterfall House karya Bornstein Lyckefors mendongkrak batas rancangan Swedia

 

Arsitek Bornstein Lyckefors telah mengembangkan konsep hunian dengan shower luar terpadu, yang dapat dibangun tanpa ijin dalam peraturan di Swedia.

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors Arkitekter

Pada Juli 2014, klausul perencanaan diusung oleh politisi Stefan Attefall memungkinkan bangunan empat meter dengan luas maksimum 25 meter persegi akan dibangun pada setiap properti perumahan yang ada,  hal itu memenuhi serangkaian persyaratan

The resulting structures are known as Attefallshus, or Attefall houses, dan dimaksudkan untuk densify Sweden’s urban areas, easing the country’s housing shortage

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors Arkitekter

Sejak itu, beberapa arsitek berdatangan up with inventive structures that demonstrate the possibilities offered by the rule – tetapi arsitek beraliran Gothenburg, Bornstein Lyckefors berpikir bahwa solusi terbaike showing how the permitted eaves could accommodate a huge shower.

 


 

 

“Aturan, yang mengatakan bahwa atap terletak setidaknya tiga meter di atas tanah yang diizinkan untuk menonjol dengan satu setengah meter, telah memungkinkan bagian bangunan yang paling menonjol – tangki air yang mengumpulkan air atap dan memungkinkan air hujan,” dijelaskan arsitek Andreas Lyckefors.

“Memiliki shower di luar ruangan adalah fitur umum di kawasan pemukiman pantai barat Swedia,” ia berkata pada Dezeen. “Ini digunakan untuk membilas air garam sesudah mandi di pantai.”

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors Arkitekter

This feature prompted the building’s name, Waterfall House, which is also intended as a play on the term Attefall house.

The house’s form is conceived as a long narrow concrete box with protruding windows on one side, while the other side features an overhanging canopy that shelters a glazed facade and a terrace.

Inside, one large open-plan room would accommodate a lounge space, a kitchen, a dining area and a study. A bunk bed would be positioned above the desk and the bathroom would be slotted into one corner.

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors Arkitekter

“We wanted to explore the maximum possible impact that a building made from the new law can have, by making it long and high with extruding volumes from the facade,” said Lyckefors.

“The rule of the bay window, that it may protrude half a metre without being counted in the building area, has been used to give extra space for a loft bed, a generous sofa niche and the kitchen,” imbuhnya.

Lyckefors also envisions storage areas being built into the walls and room on the ceiling for a suspended kayak.

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors Arkitekter

The design was created for the exhibition 25 Square at the Form/Design Center in Malmö, which shows proposals for Attefall houses by 25 different architects, including Tham & Videgård Arkitekter, White Architects and Jägnefält Milton. The show closes on 7 June.

The studio has already had some clients interested in the design and is currently working on detailed drawings.

The Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors ArkitekterExploded axonometric diagram – click for larger imageThe Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors ArkitekterPlan – click for larger imageThe Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors ArkitekterLong section – click for larger imageThe Waterfall House by Bornstein Lyckefors ArkitekterCross sections – click for larger image


Related story: Jägnefält Milton’s Forest Pavilion tests new Swedish building law

Jägnefält Milton's Forest Pavilion<br /> tests new Swedish building law

 

Stockholm studio Jägnefält Milton has designed a leaf-shaped pavilion for a woodland site – taking advantage of a new Swedish planning stipulation that allows structures under a certain size to be built without permission.