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Kolam -kolam Renang nan Indah

Kolam-kolam renang nan indah

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dikutip dari:www.bbc.co.uk

 

Sebagaimana  Zaha Hadid’s Aquatics Centre terbuka untuk umum, kritikus arsitektur Jonathan Glancey mengambil beberapa kolam renang terindah, pemandian dan spa dari seantero  jagat raya.

Dimanakah kolam renang pertamakalinya di dunia? Secara tanggal,  kompas menunjuk pada Mohenjo-Daro,  kota yang dibangun sekitartahun 2,600BC di Lembah Indus. Diabaikan sekitar 700 tahun kemudian, terkubur sampai ditemukan kembali pada tahun 1922. Kolam ini bisa jadi adalah pemandian umum, tentu saja, sampai ribuan tahun kemudian, pemandian umum dan kolam renang tidaklah menjadi satu dan bukan sesuatu yang sama. Suatu hal yang ironis, kota dan kolamnya, terletak di Pakistan sekarang ini, hilang akibat banjir besar.

Kolam renang yang paling impresif bagi masyarakat dibangun pada masa kini adalah Aquatics Centre, dirancang oleh Zaha Hadid for the London 2012 Olympics. Obyek cantik ini, beton dengan riak, bangunan dengan langit-langit kaca dan timah dibuka untuk umum bulan ini dan untuk menyenangkan ribuan anak sekolah dari bagian timur kota yang memiliki sangat sedikit tempat untuk berenang lokal sampai sekarang.

Ketakutan akan air ? dan bahkan ketakutan akan kesehatan pribadi ? ini menahan perkembangan pemandian umum dan kolam renang di banyak negara hingga saat ini. Bahkan, keinginan yang modern untuk kolam benar-benar hanya mulai dengan dimulainya Olimpiade, yang diadakan di Athena, pada tahun 1896. Sejak saat itu, kota-kota kecil dan kota-kota negara maju tampaknya bersaing satu sama lain untuk melihat yang bisa membangun  kolam renang yang mewah.

Roti dan Sirkus

Secara alamiah, kaum burgher dan para arsitek dari kota-kota besar dan kecil kembali ke Romawi kuna sebagai contoh dan panduan, bahwa pemandian dan kolam-kolam yang mashur dibangun berdasar arahan dari kekaisaran Romawi yang megah. Pemandian Caracalla, dari permulaan abad 3 dan  Diocletian, sekitarfrom seabad kemudian, adalah tempat yang mecengangkan ketika dikunjungi. Menyediakan kolam panas dan dingin, spa, gyms, restaurants, perpustakaan dan taman berpagar alam, dirancang dalam gaya arsitektur yang sangat bagus,bangunan-bangunan besar yang terbuka untuk semua orang. Mereka berada di jantung kebijakan "roti dan sirkus" kekaisaran  Romawi : menimpali orang-orang yang patuh dengan melimpahi mereka dengan makanan gratis dan hiburan populer.

Kini, lucky bathers taking a dip in the exquisite underground pool of the distinctly private RAC Club in London’s Pall Mall, do so in surroundings that, walaupun dibangun dan didekor singkat sebelum Perang Dunia I, recall those hedonistic days of Roman bathing. British cities up and down the country invested in ambitious public baths at much the same time as the palatial Royal Automobile Club Club was on the drawing boards of Mewes and Davies, among England’s finest Edwardian architects, and best known perhaps for London’s Ritz Hotel. Mereka  merancang kolam renang bergaya Pompei untuk kapal laut selama masa kejayaan  istana terapung ini .

Timur yang menjanjikan

Kolam pemandian nan indah dapat ditemukan di seluruh dunia, ranging from the magnificently austere to the decoratively decadent and overwhelmingly kitsch. One of the most gloriously grand baths can be found in the Art Nouveau-style Gellert Hotel in Budapest, rising from the site of an ancient thermal spring. The baths, completed in 1918, stayed open throughout the turmoil of World War II and, though the hotel itself was rather run down during the Cold War years, the baths remained as opulent as they had ever been, a steamy, watery realm in which hotel guests and the public alike could forget, for a few hours at a time, that they lived under the yoke of the Uni Soviet.

One of the most remarkable public pools of all time ? the world’s largest – could once be found in the very heart of the Soviet Union. This was the deeply curious open pool lapping in the foundations of what was to have been the Palace of the Soviets in pusat kota Moskow, satu  aula kongres yang  monumental, lebih tinggi dari gedung Empire State , yang telah datasnya dipasang dengan Patung Lenin setinggi 100 meter. The site of the proposed building, designed by Boris Iofan, was that of the 19th Century Orthodox Cathedral of Christ the Saviour: on Stalin’s orders, this was blown up in Decembe31. Istana ini tak jadi dibangun, sementara kolam tetap buka sampai work began on an identical replacement for the desecrated cathedral in 1995. So here was a ghostly architectural pool, where swimmers could imagine the immense bulk of either the Palace of Soviets or the Orthodox cathedral above their heads as they gazed at the garis langit Moskow , kepala-kepala di salju, tubuh-tubuh dalam air hangat.

Orang sangat terekesima dengan unsur-unsur cantik dari Thermal Baths di Vals Swiss. Designed by Peter Zumthor, and opened in 1996, this dream-like spa is built into the landscape like some strange, yet enchanting geological outcrop. Its dark, locally quarried stone walls gleaming with quartz, form a series of gently lit underground caverns. You negotiate these ethereal spaces before swimming up into an open pool with a view of snow-capped mountains. It is a truly sensational experience conjuring a feeling of near profound delight as opposed to the splashes, spills and thrills of many modern public and hotel pools decked out with all the latest, luridly coloured family fun flumes and scream-a-minute rides. 

In the UK, the Thermae Baths Spa offers a very different view than that of the Swiss Alps, from its rooftop pool. Designed by Nicholas Grimshaw and opened in 2006, the ultra-modern and supremely sleek New Royal Bath is set within an architectural frame of restored 18th Century spa buildings. This ensemble works well, especially for swimmers popping up to find themselves outdoors on the roof of the new building and surrounded by the buildings of one of Europe’s finest historic city centres.

More discreet and easily overlooked by visitors to Helsinki is the city’s Yrjönkatu baths, its modest entrance tucked into a corner of a street in the looming shadow of the famous Torni Hotel where Cold War spies once swapped secrets ? or so it’s fun to believe ? as regulars dived into the waters of the city’s first public pool. Opened in 1928, the Yrjönkatu baths were designed by the architect Vaino Vahakallio in a confident 1920s neo-classical style, as simple as the Gellert Baths are ornate.

Vahakallio was also the architect of the astonishing state-owned Alko distillery and brew house on the waterfront in Helsinki. Resembling a power station this, significantly or not, was Finland’s biggest building to date, offering citizens of a country squeezed with its back to the Baltic by the brute power of Stalin’s neighbouring Soviet Union, welcome solace in 1920, just as the Yrjönkatu baths had done in the 1920s, tatkala larangan untuk menjaga Finlandia ‘kering’.

All great, architect-designed or architecture-related pools have offered something of these special sensory and tactile delights. From spick-and-span and slightly chilly 1930s English Lidos and ambitious structures designed for Olympic Games, to the loucheness and sensuality of Ancient Roman and Art Nouveau baths, public pools have been some of the most diverting of buildings, with Zaha Hadid’s alluring Aquatics Centre ? emerging from a tangled, rough-and-ready patch of east London ? only the latest in a long line stretching back through the Baths of Caracalla to that of Mohenjo-Daro, as dry as parchment today, 5,000 years later.


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